Mongolia Information - Page 2
The nomadic tribes of Mongolia were united under the leadership of Genghis Khan in 1206. The empire was extended by his sons and grandsons. Kublai Khan, Genghis' grandson, became the emperor of China's Yuan Dynasty.
At its height, the Mongol Empire (1271-1368) covered much of Asia and stretched into Europe, as far as Hungary.
In the seventeenth century, the Manchu Qing Empire (China) divided Mongolia into Inner Mongolia (southern Mongolia) and Outer Mongolia (northern Mongolia).
The Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) established the areas of Mongolia controlled by Russia and those controlled by Manchu China.
Outer Mongolia declared independence in 1911 but was occupied by the Chinese in 1919.
Independence was finally achieved in 1921 and the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed in 1924. Inner Mongolia remained part of China.
The formation of the Mongolian Democratic Union in 1990 followed reforms introduced by Gorbachev in the USSR and the move towards democracy in Eastern Europe.
Mongolia's first multi-party elections for the People's Great Hural were held on 29 July 1990 and a new Constitution established Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic.
Herding and agriculture are traditional economic activities in Mongolia. A significant percentage of the working population still earns a living from raising livestock (goats, sheep, cattle, horses and camels).
Agricultural products are barley, wheat, forage crops, and vegetables.
The role of industry in the economy is increasing. Principal industries are construction and construction materials, furs and animal hair products, cashmere, leather, food and beverages. Natural resources include coal, tin, tungsten, copper and gold.
In 2017 the IMF and other international partners put forward measures to strengthen Mongolia's banking system and implement fiscal reforms. (2017)
The arts of Mongolia are influenced by the traditional nomadic lifestyle of the people and their religious beliefs.
Music is an integral part of Mongolian culture; folk music is a traditional pastime.
Performances of opera and ballet are regularly presented in the State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater in Ulaanbaatar.
The Naadam Festival, held in July, is an opportunity to see the traditional sports of Mongolia: wrestling, archery and horse-racing.
Other sports in Mongolia include football, basketball, volleyball, mountain climbing, and skiing.
All religious holidays are celebrated. Other days commemorated include Independence Day - 11 July (from China 1921).
News from Mongolia is available from Newslink.
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